Ceacht 4 Aon scéal ‘at?/Any story?
Begin each lesson with greetings
A. Dia duit. B. Dia ‘s Muire duit.
A. Aon scéal ‘at? ayn shkayl ot Any story (news)?
B. Diabhal scéal mura bhfuil scéal agat fhéin. jowl shkayl mura wil shkayl ot hayn
Divil a story (not a one) unless you have one yourself.
4.1 Useful expressions for the classroom
Tuigim tigum I understand
Ní thuigim. nee higum I don’t understand
Cad is brí leis? cod is bree lesh What does it mean?
Abair arís(t) é, led thoil. obur ureesh eh, led hul Say it again, please.
Labhair go mall lower (rhymes with tower) gu mol Speak slowly.
Dáiríre? dawreeru Really?
Cén leathanach, led thoil? kayn lahunoch led hul What page, please?
Rinne mé dearmad air. ri ne may dar mid er I forgot it.
Níl ‘fhios agam. neel is ogum I don’t know.
Tuigim anois. tigum unish I understand now.
4.2.1 Verb Briathair To Be Bhfuil
Past Tense bh►v sound
Bhí mé I was Bhíomar We were
Bhí tú You were Bhí sibh You were
Bhí sé He/ It was Bhí said They were
Bhí sí She/It was
The verb is – Bhfuil will
Past Positive- Bhí vee
Past Question -An raibh? on row (rhymes with now) or on rev
Past Negative – Ní raibh nee row or nee rev
4.2.2 Verb practice
ceart kyart right
mícheart meechyart wrong
tuirseach tirshoch tired
tinn teen sick
bocht bucht poor
in am in om on time
déanach daynoch late
Examples/ Samplaí: Bhí mé ceart. Bhí tú mícheart.
Make questions and answers with these.
A. An raibh tú micheart? B. Ní raibh. Bhí mé ceart.
A. An raibh sé mícheart? B. Bhí. Bhí sé mícheart. etc.
4.3 Am / Time
4.3.1 Seachtain A Week
An Luain on looun Monday
An Mháirt on waw irt Tuesday
An Céadaoin on kaydeen Wednesday
An Déardaoin on dayrdeen Thursday
An Aoine on eene Friday
An Satharn on sahurn Saturday
An Domhnach on dohnoch Sunday
4.3.2 Time Practice
Inné inyay yesterday
Inniu inyoo today
Amárach ahmawroch tomorrow
Cén lá a bhí ann inné? Kayn law a vee on inyay What day was it yesterday?
Cén lá é? kayn law eh? What day is it?
Inniu an ….. inyoo on … Today is…
Cá ndeachaigh tú inné? kaw rev too inyay Where did you go yesterday?
Chauigh mé go …. chua may gu… I went to …
Cá bhfuil tú ag dul anois? kaw will too eg dul unish Where are you going now?
Tá mé ag dul go dtí an … taw may eg dul gu dee on … I am going to the …
Siopa shupa shop
Cá bhfuil tú ag dul amárach? kaw will too eg dul amoyroch Where are you going tomorrow?
4.3.3 Na míonna
Eanair anur January
Feabhra fyowru February
Márta mawrta March
Aibreán abrawn April
Bealtaine byoltunu May
Meitheamh mehuv June
Iúil ool July
Lúnasa loonusa August
Meán Fomhair myan fore (4) September
Deireadh Fomhair dera fore (4) October
Samhain sowin (sow rhymes with now) November
Nollag nulug December
Cén dáta é? keyn dawtu eh What date is it?
Inniu an… inyu on… Today is the…
Learn the dates from:
Breithlá brehlaw Birthday
Rugadh mé an ……………. rugoo may on … I was born on the …
Tá breithlá Shinéad ann inniu. taw brehlaw hinayd on inyu It’s Sinéad’s birthday today.
Breithlá shona dhuit! brehlaw huna ghit Happy birthday to you!
4.4 Questions for conversation Ceisteanna do chómhrá
Cé hé tusa? kay hay tusa Who are you?
Cé as thú? kay os hoo Where are you from?
Cé as thú féin? kat os hoo fayn Where are you from yourself?
Cén t-am é? kayn tom eh What time is it?
Cén lá é? kayn law eh What day is it?
Cén dáta? kayn dawta What date?
Cén aois thú? kayn eesh hoo What age are you?
4.5 How is it? Cén chaoi bhfuil sé?
te te hot, fuar foor cold,
mór mohr big, beag beog small,
go maith gu mo good, go dona gu dunu bad,
ard ord high, íseal eeshul low,
gnóthach guNOhoch busy, saor sayr free,
lán lawn full, folamh fuluv empty,
Tá an tae fuar. taw on tay foor The tea is cold.
Tá an mála mór. taw on mawla mohr The bag is big.
Tá an bosca folamh. taw on busku fuluv The box is empty.
Tá mé lán. taw may lawn I am full.
Mise freisin. mishe freshin Me too.
4.5.1 More fodder for conversations
Cén chaoi bhfuil…? kayn chuee will… How is /are…?
D’obair? dubur Your work?
Do chlann? du chlon Your family?
An bia? on beea The food?
An turas? on turus The trip?
An scoil? on skul The school?
Do chairde? du chorde Your friends
Do shaol? du heel or du hayl Your life?
4.6 Ancient Culture
Celtic Festivals and the Calendar
The Celtic year was divided into two halves, the dark and the light.
1. Feb.- The Festival of Imbolc (Im bulk) A time of lambs and new life.
2. May – The Festival of Bealtaine (Biyaltineh, the fire of Bel).
The beginning of Summer. Fires were lit on hills all over the country.
3. August – The Festival of Lúnasa (Loonasa, the moon).
A Harvest Festival. Fires were lit by moonlight.
4. Nov/Oct. The Festival of Samhain (Sowin _ sow rhymes with now).
The beginning of Winter. Hallowe’en comes from Samhain.
They were all fire festivals and the festivals lasted for three days. These quarters were again divided by the solstices and equinoxes, which were known as the four Albans.
December 21, Winter Solstice, the shortest day of the year
March 21 Spring Equinox, equal day and night
June 21 Summer Solstice, the longest day of the year
September 21, Autumnal Equinox, equal day and night
4.7 Some Ancient Sites of Interest
Visit www.pbs.org/wnet/ancientireland/ to find out more.
1. Newgrange Co. Meath
2.Uisneach Co. Westmeath
3.The Hill of Tara Co. Meath
4. Dun Aengus Co. Galway The Aran Islands
5.The Cliffs of Moher Co. Clare
4.8 The Irish Mythological Cycle The 2nd Invasion – The Nemedians
Tuan, son of Starn who was the brother of Partholon saw the arrival of the next group of invaders, the Nemedians. One night after they arrived Tuan was magically transformed into a deer as he slept. He went through various transformations through the years becoming a deer, a boar, an eagle, and finally a salmon. The chieftain Cairill’s wife ate him while he was in the shape of a salmon. Tuan was then was reborn from her as Tuan mac Cairill. Tuan related the stories of the early invasions of Ireland that come down to us.
During the time their occupation of Ireland of the Nemedians cleared 12 plains and four new lakes were formed. Like the Partholonians they came from the west and landed on the western shores of Ireland. The Fomorians camefrom their northern islands to fight the new inhabitants. The Nemedians won three battles with the Fomorians, however each time they suffered great losses. Following these battles they were struck by a plague that killed more of their men, including their leader Nemed. The Fomorians took advantage of the weakened state of the Nemedians and demanded 2/3 of their corn, milk and that their children be paid every Samhain eve. The Nemedians fought the Fomorians again. Only one ship of Fomorians survived. Some Nemedians, partly from fear of the possible return of the Fomorians and partly from fear of plague, left Ireland. Those Nemedians who stayed were all killed. The departed survivors then became the ancestors of the next two groups of invaders, the Fir Bolg and the Tuatha de Danaan.
4.9 Ancient Writing Ogham Writing Review Ogham Letters
A way to remember the order of letters:
Think of the Braveheart scene where the Irish were hired to fight against the Scottish but it was a bluff. The gangs of Ireland rushed over but fought for Scotland. So Eire (Ireland) explains that to a son of Scotland. Think of starting looking down but then raising your head and looking up and then crossing over to the over side and leaning right into the battle and then standing straight at the end of the battle.
See if you can write you name in Ogham on the line below: